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Cancer Res. 2004 Mar 15;64(6):2143-7.

Vitamin D receptor and p21/WAF1 are targets of genistein and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human prostate cancer cells.

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Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.


We investigated mechanisms by which genistein and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] act synergistically to inhibit the growth of the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. We demonstrate that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and genistein cooperate to up-regulate the vitamin D receptor protein by increasing the stability of the vitamin D receptor. Genistein and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) also cooperate to up-regulate the levels of p21/WAF1 (p21). Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of p21 expression showed that p21 is essential for significant growth inhibition of LNCaP cells in response to either compound or their combination. We conclude that one mechanism of synergism between genistein and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) is through genistein modulation of vitamin D signaling.

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