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J Control Release. 2004 Mar 24;95(3):627-38.

Preparation, characterization and in vitro release kinetics of clozapine solid lipid nanoparticles.

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NDDS Laboratory, University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal-506 009, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Clozapine, a lipophilic antipsychotic drug, has very poor oral bioavailability (<27%) due to first pass effect. Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) delivery systems of clozapine have been developed using various triglycerides (trimyristin, tripalmitin and tristearin), soylecithin 95%, poloxamer 188 and charge modifier stearylamine. Hot homogenization of melted lipids and aqueous phase followed by ultrasonication at temperature above the melting point of lipid was used to prepare SLN dispersions. Particle size and zeta potential were measured by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) using Malvern Zetasizer. Process and formulation variables have been studied and optimized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies were performed to characterize state of drug and lipid modification. In vitro release studies were performed in 0.1 N HCl, double-distilled water and phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, using modified Franz diffusion cell. Stable SLN formulations of clozapine having mean size range of 60-380 nm and zeta potential range of -23 to +33 mV were developed. More than 90% clozapine was entrapped in SLN. DSC and PXRD analysis showed that clozapine is dispersed in SLN in an amorphous state. The release pattern of drug is analyzed and found to follow Weibull and Higuchi equations.

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