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Toxicon. 2003 Dec 15;42(8):933-45.

Myotoxic phospholipases A2 and the regeneration of skeletal muscles.

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School of Neurology, Neurobiology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK.


The review explains why the myotoxic phospholipases A2 and cardiotoxins are such important tools in the study of the regeneration and maturation of mammalian skeletal muscle. The role of satellite cells as precursors of cell-based regeneration is discussed and recent controversies on the origin of myogenic cells involved in the regeneration of mature skeletal muscle are addressed. This is followed by discussions of sarcomere reconstruction, myosin and sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPase expression, the electrophysiological properties of regenerating muscle, and the reconstruction of the neuromuscular junction. The emphasis throughout is on the plastic changes of major structural and functional proteins that occur during regeneration, and on other influences that determine the final outcome of regenerative activity such as innervation, thyroid status, mechanical work and the functional integrity of the microcirculation. The review closes with a discussion of some of the factors--such as active regeneration--that influence the success of gene-based therapies applied to inherited muscle disease.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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