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J Urol. 2004 Apr;171(4):1443-6.

Hand assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for peripheral and central lesions: a review of 30 consecutive cases.

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Department of Urology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19317, USA.



We reviewed our first 30 hand assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomies and compared the results of 8 centrally located vs 22 peripherally located tumors.


Tumors were classified by computerized tomography as central (less than 5 mm from the pelvicaliceal system or hilar vessels) or peripheral. The hand assisted technique consisted of mobilization and manual parenchymal compression without vascular occlusion or ureteral stent placement. Argon beam coagulation and a fibrin glue bandage were used for hemostasis.


Mean tumor size was 2.6 cm (range 1.0 to 4.7). Mean operative time was 199 and 271 minutes, and estimated blood loss was 240 and 894 ml for peripheral and central lesions, respectively. No case required open conversion. The final diagnoses were renal cell carcinoma in 21 patients, angiomyolipoma in 4, benign or hemorrhagic cyst in 3 and oncocytoma in 2. Initial positive margins were found in 5 of 30 specimens (16.7%) (1 central and 4 peripheral) and all final resection margins were negative. Four central (50%) and 2 peripheral (9.1%) tumor cases required transfusion. Drain creatinine was elevated in 6 patients (20%) postoperatively, of whom 3 had a central and 3 had a peripheral lesion. All responded to conservative management except 1 patient (3.3%) who required stent placement. Postoperative bleeding in a central tumor case required transfusion of 4 units. There were no short-term local recurrences and 1 patient had an asynchronous tumor.


Hand assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is safe with excellent immediate cancer control. Careful dissection and frozen section analysis are mandatory to ensure a negative tumor margin. Blood loss and transfusion rates were higher in patients with centrally located tumors and renal hilar vascular control should be considered for central lesions.

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