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Circ Res. 2004 Apr 2;94(6):e61-70. Epub 2004 Mar 11.

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation regulates the cardiac ryanodine receptor.

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Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 W 168th St, P&S 9-401, Box 65, New York, NY 10032, USA.


The cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2)/calcium release channel on the sarcoplasmic reticulum is required for muscle excitation-contraction coupling. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we identified the specific Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation site on recombinant RyR2, distinct from the site for protein kinase A (PKA) that mediates the "fight-or-flight" stress response. CaMKII phosphorylation increased RyR2 Ca2+ sensitivity and open probability. CaMKII was activated at increased heart rates, which may contribute to enhanced Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. Moreover, rate-dependent CaMKII phosphorylation of RyR2 was defective in heart failure. CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of RyR2 may contribute to the enhanced contractility observed at higher heart rates. The full text of this article is available online at

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