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Phytochemistry. 2004 Mar;65(6):721-30.

Fatty acid composition of individual polar lipid classes from marine macrophytes.

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Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Far Eastern National University, 690600, Vladivostok, Russia.


Major glycolipids [monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG)) and phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG)] as well as betaine lipid 1,2-diacylglycero-O-4'-(N,N,N-tri-methyl)-homoserine (DGTS) were isolated from Anfeltia tobuchiensis (Rhodophyta), Laminaria japonica, Sargassum pallidum (Phaeophyta), Ulva fenestrata (Chlorophyta) and Zostera marina (Embriophyta), harvested in the Sea of Japan. GC analysis of their fatty acid (FA) composition revealed that the n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) shared the most part of the sum of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs in PC and PE compared with glycolipids and PG. In algae, it was related to the prevalence of 20:4n-6 over 20:5n-3 in non-photosynthetic lipids. Percentage of n-6 PUFAs as well as the sum of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs decreased in the following sequence: PC-->PE-->PG. The saturation increased in the lines of MGDG-->DGDG-->SQDG and PC-->PE-->PG. PG was close to SQDG by the level of saturation. Distribution of C(18) and C(20) PUFAs in polar lipids depended on taxonomic position of macrophytes. Balance between C(18) and C(20) PUFAs was preferably shifted to the side of C(20) PUFAs in PC and PE that was observed in contrast to glycolipids and PG from L. japonica containing both series of FAs. The set of major FAs of polar lipid classes can essentially differ from each other and from total lipids of macrophytes. For example, MGDG was found to accumulate characteristic fatty acids 16:4n-3, 16:3n-3, 18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3, 20:3n-6 in U. fenestrata, Z. marina, L. japonica and S. pallidum, respectively.

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