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J Clin Periodontol. 2004 Apr;31(4):260-6.

Influence of tobacco smoking on periodontal bone height. Long-term observations and a hypothesis.

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1
Institute of Odontology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

AIM:

The aim of the investigation was to estimate the magnitude of the long-term influence of chronic smoking on the periodontal bone height.

METHODS:

The study population included 19 continuous smokers, 28 former smokers and 44 non-smokers in the age range 20-60 years at baseline. The participants were examined at two points in time with an interval of 10 years. The height of the periodontal bone was determined from bite-wing radiographs of the first and second premolars of the maxilla and the mandible and measured from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) to the periodontal bone crest (PBC) mesially and distally to the preselected teeth.

RESULTS:

The mean (SD) CEJ-PBC distance at baseline was 1.82 (1.01) mm for smokers, 1.65 (0.81) mm for former smokers, and 1.16 (0.59) mm for non-smokers (p=0.016). The mean (SD) 10-year bone height reduction was 0.74 (0.59) mm for smokers as against 0.26 (0.31) mm for former smokers and 0.27 (0.29) mm for non-smokers. Controlling for age and baseline bone height level, the magnitude of the reduction was significantly dependent of smoking (p=0.000). The widening gap between smokers and non-smokers over time suggested that the bone height reduction of smokers took place at an accelerated rate.

CONCLUSION:

On the basis of the observations it is hypothesized that smoking induces an acceleration of the periodontal bone height reduction rate and that smoking cessation results in a return towards non-smoker rate.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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