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Kidney Int. 1992 Jun;41(6):1599-605.

The sodium retaining effects of cyclosporine.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.


The effect of chronic cyclosporine administration on volume regulation was studied in mongrel dogs. Dogs received either cyclosporine (20 mg/kg/day p.o.; N = 7) or vehicle (N = 6) while being maintained on a constant sodium diet. Dogs had measurement of baseline vasoactive hormones. Daily sodium excretion was determined. Following eight days of drug administration, dogs were anesthetized, pre-volume expansion data was collected, and dogs underwent a one hour, 10% body weight 0.9% saline volume expansion. Daily sodium balance was +8.6 +/- 2.2 mEq in the cyclosporine group versus 0.4 +/- 1.8 mEq (P less than 0.05) in the control group after 8 days. Prior to acute volume expansion, aldosterone was 22.5 +/- 7.1 ng% in the cyclosporine group versus 4.7 +/- 0.7 ng% in controls (P less than 0.05). ANF was suppressed in the animals receiving cyclosporine. In response to volume expansion, the cyclosporine group demonstrated an attenuation of maximum urine flow by 56%, fractional excretion of sodium by 52%, and electrolyte free water clearance by 75% when compared to controls (P less than 0.05). We demonstrate that chronic cyclosporine administration activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, suppresses circulating ANF, and results in chronic sodium retention. Additionally, cyclosporine attenuates the natriuretic and diuretic response to acute volume expansion.

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