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THE ORGANIZATION AND REGULATION OF PLANT GLYCOLYSIS.

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Departments of Biology and Biochemistry, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada.

Abstract

This review discusses the organization and regulation of the glycolytic pathway in plants and compares and contrasts plant and nonplant glycolysis. Plant glycolysis exists both in the cytosol and plastid, and the parallel reactions are catalyzed by distinct nuclear-encoded isozymes. Cytosolic glycolysis is a complex network containing alternative enzymatic reactions. Two alternate cytosolic reactions enhance the pathway's ATP yield through the use of pyrophosphate in place of ATP. The cytosolic glycolytic network may provide an essential metabolic flexibility that facilitates plant development and acclimation to environmental stress. The regulation of plant glycolytic flux is assessed, with a focus on the fine control of enzymes involved in the metabolism of fructose-6-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate. Plant and nonplant glycolysis are regulated from the "bottom up" and "top down," respectively. Research on tissue- and developmental-specific isozymes of plant glycolytic enzymes is summarized. Potential pitfalls associated with studies of glycolytic enzymes are considered. Some glycolytic enzymes may be multifunctional proteins involved in processes other than carbohydrate metabolism.

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