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J Thromb Haemost. 2004 Mar;2(3):430-6.

Impact of environmental and hereditary risk factors on the clinical manifestation of thrombophilia in homozygous carriers of factor V:G1691A.

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Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Frankfurt, Germany.



Limited data exist on the clinical manifestations of homozygous factor (F)V:G1691A mutation (FV Leiden) and the impact of environmental and genetic risk factors.


To assess the contribution of these factors on the thrombophilic phenotype.


In a retrospective multicenter cohort study 165 individuals with homozygous FV:G1691A mutation, of whom 129 had previous venous thromboembolism (VTE), were included. To study the role of environmental risk factors, patients were compared by the use of a standardized questionnaire to 165 sex- and age-matched individuals (reference group A); of these, two had previous VTE. To assess the role of genetic risk factors, factor (F)II:G20210A and MTHFR:C677T were determined in individuals homozygous for FV:G1691A and in 177 healthy individuals without previous VTE (reference group B).


The first VTE occurred significantly earlier in women (median age 25 years) than men (35.5 years). In 81% of women and 29% of men an environmental risk factor was present before first VTE. Oral contraceptives increased the risk of thrombosis 4-fold [odds ratio (OR) 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7, 10.4] in women with homozygous FV:G1691A. Postoperative and post-traumatic VTE as first manifestation occurred in 13% and 15% of surgical/traumatic events in patients and in 0.7% and 1.8% in reference group A, respectively (OR 19.7, 95% CI 2.5, 154 and OR 9.2, 95% CI 1.1, 79.4). Heterozygous FII:G20210A was more prevalent in symptomatic patients (11.7%) compared with reference group B (2.8%, OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.6, 13.2). The prevalence of homozygous MTHFR:C677T genotype was similar in patients and reference group B.


Our study supports the concept of thrombophilia as a multifactorial disorder. The knowledge of coexisting factors predisposing to VTE is useful for medical advice for primary and secondary prophylaxis in these patients.

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