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Int J Urol. 2004 Mar;11(3):133-41.

Urinary tract and genito-urinary suppurative infections due to anaerobic bacteria.

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Department of Pediatrics, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington DC 20016, USA.


Anaerobes have been involved in many different types of urinary tract infection. This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of urinary tract and genito-urinary suppurative infections caused by anaerobic bacteria. The types of infections of the urinary tract in which anaerobes have been involved include para- or periurethral cellulitis or abscess, acute and chronic urethritis, cystitis, acute and chronic prostatitis, prostatic and scrotal abscesses, periprostatic phlegmon, ureteritis, periureteritis, pyelitis, pyelonephritis, renal abscess, scrotal gangrene, metastatic renal infection pyonephrosis, perinephric abscess, retroperitoneal abscess and other infections. The anaerobes recovered in these studies were Gram-negative bacilli (including Bacteroides fragilis and pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas sp.), Clostridium sp., anaerobic Gram-positive cocci and Actinomyces sp. In many cases, they were recovered mixed with coliforms or streptococci. The recovery of anaerobes requires the administration of antimicrobial therapy that is effective against these organisms. These antimicrobials include metronidazole, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, a carbapenem, cefoxitin and the combination of a penicillin and a beta-lactamase inhibitor. Percutaneous drainage, open surgical drainage or nephectomy might be indicated for abscesses.

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