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Oecologia. 2004 May;139(3):478-85. Epub 2004 Mar 9.

Experimental evidence for density-dependence of home-range size in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.): a comparison of two long-term studies.

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Gimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Conservation Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 730 91, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.


The effect of experimental manipulation of population density on home-range size was investigated in two free-ranging roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations under contrasting environmental conditions. In these two long-term monitoring studies, one in Bogesund, Sweden (12 years) and one in Dourdan, France (10 years), deer density varied fourfold through varying culling pressure. Home-range data were collected by radio-tracking across the periods of contrasting density of the studies. We predicted that home-range size for females should vary in relation to the level of feeding competition, while for males, competition for mating opportunities should also influence range size, at least in summer when roe bucks are territorial. We found a highly consistent pattern over the two populations, with strong effects of deer density on home-range size, as well as significant differences between winter and summer ranges and between the sexes. Home ranges were consistently smaller at high density compared to low density. Males had larger ranges than females and this was particularly so during summer. Lastly, winter ranges were generally larger than summer ranges, particularly among females, although males at Dourdan had larger summer ranges compared to winter ranges. We suggest that the reduction of range size at high deer density during winter, as well as summer, is linked to the solitary behaviour and territorial social system of roe deer, with possible effects of dominance rank, even outside the mating season.

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