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Nat Immunol. 2004 Apr;5(4):373-9. Epub 2004 Mar 7.

ST2 is an inhibitor of interleukin 1 receptor and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling and maintains endotoxin tolerance.

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Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland.


The Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) superfamily, defined by the presence of an intracellular TIR domain, initiates innate immunity through activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines. ST2 is a member of the TIR family that does not activate NF-kappa B and has been suggested as an important effector molecule of T helper type 2 (T(H)2) responses. We show here that the membrane-bound form of ST2 negatively regulated type I interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1RI) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but not TLR3 signaling by sequestrating the adaptors MyD88 and Mal. In contrast to wild-type mice, ST2-deficient mice failed to develop endotoxin tolerance. Thus, these results provide a molecular explanation for the function of ST2 in T(H)2 responses, as inhibition of TLRs promotes a T(H)2 response, and also identify ST2 as a key regulator of endotoxin tolerance.

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