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Dig Liver Dis. 2004 Feb;36(2):141-6.

Colonoscopic manifestations of typhoid fever with lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

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Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, #50 Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-710, South Korea.



Intestinal bleeding in patients with typhoid fever usually occurs in the ileum. However, endoscopic findings in such patients are not well established. We examined the colonoscopic manifestations of intestinal lesions with bleeding in patients with typhoid fever.


The colonoscopic findings of seven patients who presented with haematochezia due to typhoid fever were reviewed retrospectively. Typhoid fever was diagnosed when the Salmonella typhi was isolated or when the Widal test showed strongly positive reactions.


Clinical data and colonoscopic findings were reviewed in seven patients (four men and three women with an average age of 42 years). The most commonly involved area was the terminal ileum (100%), followed by the ileocecal valve (57%), the ascending colon (43%), and the transverse colon (29%). Left colon was intact in all cases. The most common colonoscopic finding was multiple variable-sized punched-out ulcers with slightly elevated margin, as found in five patients. In two patients, only several oedematous hyperaemic mucosal patches with haemorrhagic spots or shallow erosions were seen. Active bleeding was noticed only in one patient, who received endoscopic haemostasis twice. The remaining six patients were treated by conservative treatment including antibiotic therapy. There was no complication during or after the colonoscopic examination.


Intestinal bleeding in typhoid fever usually occurs from the ulcers in the ileum or proximal colon, and the most common colonoscopic manifestations are multiple variable-sized punched-out ulcerations.

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