Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Science. 2004 Mar 5;303(5663):1499-503.

European seasonal and annual temperature variability, trends, and extremes since 1500.

Author information

1
National Center of Competence in Research (NCCR) Climate, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland. juerg@giub.unibe.ch

Abstract

Multiproxy reconstructions of monthly and seasonal surface temperature fields for Europe back to 1500 show that the late 20th- and early 21st-century European climate is very likely (>95% confidence level) warmer than that of any time during the past 500 years. This agrees with findings for the entire Northern Hemisphere. European winter average temperatures during the period 1500 to 1900 were reduced by approximately 0.5 degrees C (0.25 degrees C for annual mean temperatures) compared to the 20th century. Summer temperatures did not experience systematic century-scale cooling relative to present conditions. The coldest European winter was 1708/1709; 2003 was by far the hottest summer.

PMID:
15001774
DOI:
10.1126/science.1093877
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center