Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Nature. 2004 Mar 4;428(6978):63-6.

Hybrid fracture and the transition from extension fracture to shear fracture.

Author information

1
Center for Tectonophysics, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3115, USA.

Abstract

Fracture is a fundamental mechanism of material failure. Two basic types of brittle fractures are commonly observed in rock deformation experiments--extension (opening mode) fractures and shear fractures. For nearly half a century it has been hypothesized that extension and shear fractures represent end-members of a continuous spectrum of brittle fracture types. However, observations of transitional fractures that display both opening and shear modes (hybrids) in naturally deformed rock have often remained ambiguous, and a clear demonstration of hybrid fracture formation has not been provided by experiments. Here we present the results of triaxial extension experiments on Carrara marble that show a continuous transition from extension fracture to shear fracture with an increase in compressive stress. Hybrid fractures form under mixed tensile and compressive stress states at acute angles to the maximum principal compressive stress. Fracture angles are greater than those observed for extension fractures and less than those observed for shear fractures. Fracture surfaces also display a progressive change from an extension to shear fracture morphology.

PMID:
14999279
DOI:
10.1038/nature02333

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group
Loading ...
Support Center