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Oral Dis. 2004 Mar;10(2):106-12.

Candida yeasts in chronic periodontitis tissues and subgingival microbial biofilms in vivo.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Institute of Dentistry, University of Helsinki, Finland.


The frequency of Candida infection in periodontal tissues of chronic periodontitis (CP) patients and the extent of candidal penetration into gingival tissues was studied. Tissue specimens collected from 25 CP patients during periodontal flap operations of initial periodontal therapy were examined by immunohistochemistry using Candida albicans-specific antibodies. Sections were also stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and subgingival plaque samples from 17 patients were cultured. Immunoreactivity for Candida was present in four of the 25 CP specimens (16%). Only one yeast-positive specimen was found when PAS-staining was used (4%) and two yeast-positive specimens were found with plaque culture (8%). Hyphal formation seemed essential and candidal hyphae were found to extend into the periodontal connective tissue. The degree and type of inflammation adjacent to the hyphae varied from a site and a patient to another. The sensitivity of specific antibodies was superior to PAS-stain or plaque culture in detection of Candida in tissues.

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