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J Biol Chem. 2004 May 7;279(19):19683-90. Epub 2004 Mar 1.

Dual regulation of MMP-2 expression by the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor: the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and Raf/ERK pathways transmit opposing signals.

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Department of Surgery, McGill University Health Center, the Royal Victoria Hospital, Room H6.25, 687 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 1A1.


The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 has been recognized as a major mediator of basement membrane degradation, angiogenesis, tumor invasion, and metastasis. The factors that regulate its expression have not, however, been fully elucidated. We previously identified the type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) receptor as a regulator of MMP-2 synthesis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the signal transduction pathway(s) mediating this regulation. We show here that in Lewis lung carcinoma subline H-59 cells treated with IGF-I (10 ng/ml), the PI 3-kinase (phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase) /protein kinase B (Akt) and C-Raf/ERK pathways were activated, and MMP-2 promoter activity, mRNA, and protein synthesis were induced. MMP-2 induction was blocked by the PI 3-kinase inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin, by overexpression of a dominant-negative Akt or wild-type PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10), and by rapamycin. In contrast, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 failed to reduce MMP-2 promoter activation and actually increased MMP-2 mRNA and protein synthesis by up to 30%. Interestingly, suppression of PI 3-kinase signaling by a dominant-negative Akt enhanced ERK activity in cells stimulated with 10 ng/ml but not with 100 ng/ml IGF-I. Furthermore, at the higher (100 ng/ml) IGF-I concentration, C-Raf and ERK, but not PI 3-kinase activation, was enhanced, and this resulted in down-regulation of MMP-2 synthesis. This effect was reversed in cells expressing a dominant-negative ERK mutant. The results suggest that IGF-I can up-regulate MMP-2 synthesis via PI 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR (the mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling while concomitantly transmitting a negative regulatory signal via the Raf/ERK pathway. The outcome of IGF-IR (the receptor for IGF-I) activation may ultimately depend on factors, such as ligand bioavailability, that can shift the balance preferentially toward one pathway or the other.

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