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J Virol. 2004 Mar;78(6):3196-9.

Complete protection from papillomavirus challenge after a single vaccination with a vesicular stomatitis virus vector expressing high levels of L1 protein.

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Department of Pathology. Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510.


We generated an attenuated, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing high levels of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) L1 protein from an upstream site in the VSV genome. Rabbits vaccinated once with this VSV-L1 recombinant produced high levels of anti-L1 antibody and were completely protected against papilloma formation after challenge with CRPV. In contrast, animals vaccinated only once with a VSV vector expressing lower levels of L1 from a downstream site in the VSV genome generated lower levels of L1 antibody and demonstrated only incomplete protection from papilloma formation after challenge. We conclude that the level of L1 protein expression is critical in generating complete immunity with a single-dose vaccine.

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