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Lancet. 2004 Feb 21;363(9409):617-9.

Re-emergence of fatal human influenza A subtype H5N1 disease.

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Department of Microbiology and Pathology, University of Hong Kong and Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China.


Human disease associated with influenza A subtype H5N1 re-emerged in January, 2003, for the first time since an outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997. Patients with H5N1 disease had unusually high serum concentrations of chemokines (eg, interferon induced protein-10 [IP-10] and monokine induced by interferon gamma [MIG]). Taken together with a previous report that H5N1 influenza viruses induce large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines from macrophage cultures in vitro, our findings suggest that cytokine dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of H5N1 disease. Development of vaccines against influenza A (H5N1) virus should be made a priority.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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