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Neurology. 2004 Feb 24;62(4):538-43.

Caveolinopathies: mutations in caveolin-3 cause four distinct autosomal dominant muscle diseases.

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Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.


The caveolin-3 protein is expressed exclusively in muscle cells. Caveolin-3 expression is sufficient to form caveolae-sarcolemmal invaginations that are 50 to 100 nm in diameter. Monomers of caveolin-3 oligomerize to form high molecular mass scaffolding on the cytoplasmic surface of the sarcolemmal membrane. A mutation in one caveolin-3 allele produces an aberrant protein product capable of sequestering the normal caveolin-3 protein in the Golgi apparatus of skeletal muscle cells. Improper caveolin-3 oligomerization and membrane localization result in skeletal muscle T-tubule system derangement, sarcolemmal membrane alterations, and large subsarcolemmal vesicle formation. To date, there have been eight autosomal dominant caveolin-3 mutations identified in the human population. Caveolin-3 mutations can result in four distinct, sometimes overlapping, muscle disease phenotypes: limb girdle muscular dystrophy, rippling muscle disease, distal myopathy, and hyperCKemia. Thus, the caveolin-3 mutant genotype-to-phenotype relation represents a clear example of how genetic background can influence phenotypic outcome. This review examines in detail the reported cases of patients with caveolin-3 mutations and their corresponding muscle disease phenotypes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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