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J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2004 Jan;24(1):1-19.

Small ISGs coming forward.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, Denmark. pips@biobase.dk

Abstract

Interferons (IFNs) were first characterized as antiviral proteins. Since then, IFNs have proved to be involved in malignant, angiogenic, inflammatory, immune, and fibrous diseases and, thus, possess a broad spectrum of pathophysiologic properties. IFNs activate a cascade of intracellular signaling pathways leading to upregulation of more than 1000 IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) within the cell. The function of some of the IFN-induced proteins is well described, whereas that of many others remain poorly characterized. This review focuses on three families of small intracellular and intrinsically nonsecreted proteins (10-20 kDa) separated into groups according to their amino acid sequence similarity: the ISG12 group (6-16, ISG12, and ISG12-S), the 1-8 group (9-27/Leu13, 1-8U, and 1-8D), and the ISG15 group (ISG15/UCRP). These IFN-induced genes are abundantly and widely expressed and mainly induced by type I IFN. ISG15 is very well described and is a member of the ubiquitin-like group of proteins. 9-27/Leu-13 associates with CD81/TAPA-1 and plays a role in B cell development. The functions of 1-8U, 1-8D, 6-16, ISG12, and ISG12-S proteins are unknown at present.

PMID:
14980080
DOI:
10.1089/107999004772719864
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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