Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Mar;65(3):550-7.

Retinoid X receptor alpha regulates glutathione homeostasis and xenobiotic detoxification processes in mouse liver.

Author information

Department of Pathology, Harbor-University of California Los Angeles Research and Education Institute, Torrance, USA.


Retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) plays a pivotal role in regulating liver metabolism. RXRalpha-mediated gene expression involved in amino acid metabolism was examined using the NIA Mouse 15K cDNA microarray containing 15,000 different expressed sequence tags. Seven amino acid metabolic genes, three of which encode enzymes involved in phase II detoxification process, were identified as RXRalpha target genes in mouse liver. Glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), glutathione S-transferasemu, and glutathione peroxidase 1 were down-regulated in the liver of hepatocyte RXRalpha-deficient mice. The down-regulation of GCLC in RXRalpha-deficient mice led to 40% and 45% reductions in the rate of glutathione (GSH) synthesis and level of hepatic GSH, respectively. Primary hepatocytes from RXRalpha-deficient mice were more sensitive to t-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress. However, GSH diminished RXRalpha-deficient mice were resistant to acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Analysis of phase I detoxification genes revealed that CYP1A2 and CYP3A11 were up-regulated in wild-type mice but down-regulated in RXRalpha-deficient mice after APAP administration. Taken together, the data indicate that RXRalpha centrally regulates both phase I and phase II drug metabolism and detoxification. Regulation of hepatic GSH levels by RXRalpha is essential to protect hepatocytes from oxidative stress, whereas up-regulation of phase I drug metabolism genes by RXRalpha may render the liver more sensitive to APAP-induced toxicity.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center