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Toxicol Sci. 2004 May;79(1):157-69. Epub 2004 Feb 19.

In utero and lactation exposure of rats to 1R4F reference cigarette mainstream smoke: effect on prenatal and postnatal development.

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Philip Morris USA, Richmond, Virginia 23224, USA.


Childhood cognitive and behavioral deficits have been reported in children born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy (Institute of Medicine, 2001). To investigate these potential responses in an animal model, reproductive and neurotoxicity evaluations based on the U.S. FDA guidelines were used to examine the offspring of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed 2 h/day, 7 days/week by nose-only inhalation to whole mainstream smoke total particulate matter (TPM). Concentrations of 150, 300, or 600 mg/m(3) were used (males: 4 weeks prior to and during mating; and females: 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and through weaning at postnatal day 21). Sham air controls receiving filtered air and cage controls were also maintained. F(1) rats were weighed, identified by gender, examined for clinical signs of toxicity, and evaluated for neurobehavioral effects through postnatal day 65. Parental exposure was evidenced by smoke concentration-related increases in blood carboxyhemoglobin, nicotine, and cotinine and by characteristic cigarette smoke-related rodent respiratory tract histopathology. Also, nicotine and cotinine were found in F(1) blood through the lactation period. Maternal toxicity occurred at concentrations of 300 and 600 mg TPM/m(3), where total body weight gain during gestation was significantly (p < or = 0.05) decreased compared to sham controls. While smoke concentration-related decreases in F(1) birth weight and growth were evident (600 mg TPM/m(3), significantly different from sham at all time points), no adverse effects on developmental landmarks, including age at vaginal patency or preputial separation, motor activity, acoustic startle response or learning, and memory, were observed in the F(1) generation. This study confirmed that maternal exposure to high levels of mainstream cigarette smoke during gestation and lactation reduces birth weight and retards growth in the rat neonate; however, the developmental and neurobehavioral testing methodologies employed did not appear to be sensitive for an evaluation of neonatal behavioral effects following parental smoke exposure.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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