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Chin Med J (Engl). 2004 Feb;117(2):291-5.

Urine products of bone breakdown as markers of bone resorption and clinical usefulness of urinary hydroxyproline: an overview.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Gazi, Emek, Ankara, Turkey.



The purpose of this study is to review the urine products of bone breakdown as markers of bone resorption and usefulness of urinary hydroxyproline.


Related researches published in 1985 - 2000 were systematically reviewed.


Bone markers could be used for early diagnosis of bone metabolic diseases. Biochemical markers of bone resorption that reflect osteoclast activity and/or collagen degradation provide a new and potentially important clinical tool for the assessment and monitoring of bone metabolism. Assessment of bone resorption can be achieved with measurement of urinary hydroxylysine glycosides, urinary excretion of the collagen pyridinium cross-links, urinary excretion of type I collagen telopeptide breakdown products (cross-linked telopeptides) and urinary hydroxyproline.


Urinary hydroxyproline has been in use as a marker of bone resorption, but it lacks sensitivity and specificity. It is a modified amino acid that is a metabolic product of collagen breakdown. Hydroxyproline may be released either free or with fragments of the collagen molecule attached during bone resorption, and it is also liberated by the breakdown of complement and nonskeletal collagen.

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