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BMC Genet. 2003 Dec 31;4 Suppl 1:S76.

Linkage analysis of adult height with parent-of-origin effects in the Framingham Heart Study.

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Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.


Current linkage analysis methods for quantitative traits do not usually incorporate imprinting effects. Here, we carried out genome-wide linkage analysis for loci influencing adult height in the Framingham Heart Study subjects using variance components while allowing for imprinting effects. We used a sex-averaged map for the 22 autosomes, while chromosomes 6, 14, 18, and 19 were also analyzed using sex-specific maps. We compared results from these four analyses: 1) non-imprinted with sex-averaged maps, 2) imprinted with sex-averaged maps, 3) non-imprinted with sex-specific maps, and 4) imprinted with sex-specific maps. We found four regions on three chromosomes (14q32, 18p11-q21, 18q21-22, and 19q13) with LOD scores above 2.0, with a maximum LOD score of 3.12, allowing for imprinting and sex-specific maps, at D18S1364 on 18q21. While we obtained significant evidence of imprinting effects in both the 18p11-q21 and 19q13 regions when using sex-averaged maps, there were no significant differences between the imprinted and non-imprinted LOD scores when we used sex-specific maps. Our results illustrate the importance of allowing for gender-specific effects in linkage analyses, whether these are in the form of gender-specific recombination frequencies, or in the form of imprinting effects.

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