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Cancer Res. 2004 Feb 15;64(4):1278-86.

Tumor suppressor von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) stabilization of Jade-1 protein occurs through plant homeodomains and is VHL mutation dependent.

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1
Renal and Hematology/Oncology Sections, Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Boston University School of Medicine, 650 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

Abstract

The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene is the major renal cancer gene in adults. The mechanism of renal tumor suppression by VHL protein is only partly elucidated. VHL loss increases expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor alpha transcription factors. However, clinical and biochemical data indicate that the hypoxia-inducible factors are necessary but not sufficient for renal tumorigenesis, which suggests other VHL effector pathways are involved. Jade-1 protein interacts strongly with VHL and is most highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, precursor cells of renal cancer. Short-lived Jade-1 protein contains plant homeodomain (PHD) and candidate PEST degradation motifs and is substantially stabilized by VHL. The effect of VHL on Jade-1 protein abundance and relative protein stability was further examined in immunoblots and metabolic labeling experiments using two time points. VHL-Jade-1 binding was tested in coimmunoprecipitations. In cotransfection studies with wild-type VHL, the Jade-1 PHD-extended PHD module, not the candidate PEST domain, was required for full VHL-mediated stabilization. This module is also found in leukemia transcription factors AF10 and AF17, as well as closely related Jade-like proteins, which suggests all might be VHL regulated. Intriguingly, naturally occurring truncations and mutations of VHL affected wild-type Jade-1 binding and stabilization. Although the VHL beta domain was sufficient for Jade-1 binding, both the alpha and beta domains were required for Jade-1 stabilization. Thus, truncating VHL mutations, which are severe and associated with renal cancer development, prevented Jade-1 stabilization. Moreover, well-controlled cotransfection and metabolic labeling experiments revealed that VHL missense mutations that cause VHL disease without renal cancer, such as Tyr98His and Tyr112His, stabilized Jade-1 fully. In contrast, like the VHL truncations, VHL missense mutations commonly associated with renal cancer, such as Leu118Pro or Arg167Trp, did not stabilize Jade-1 fully. Therefore, loss of Jade-1 stability may correlate with renal cancer risk. Endogenous Jade-1 in stable renal cancer lines also exhibited VHL mutation-dependent regulation. As in the cotransfections, VHL truncations did not increase endogenous Jade-1 abundance, whereas the VHL missense mutations tested partially increased Jade-1 expression. Additional studies with non-PHD proteins indicated that Jade-1 stabilization by VHL is highly specific. Fibronectin was not stabilized like Jade-1 by VHL, nor were candidate VHL interactors from a yeast screen. Thus, protein stabilization likely reflects the biological activity of largely intact VHL protein on the PHD-extended PHD module of Jade-1. Dysregulation of the VHL protein stabilization pathway or of Jade-1 itself may therefore contribute to VHL renal disease and renal cancer pathogenesis.

PMID:
14973063
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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