Send to

Choose Destination
Psychol Med. 2004 Jan;34(1):9-17.

Saving clinicians' time by delegating routine aspects of therapy to a computer: a randomized controlled trial in phobia/panic disorder.

Author information

Department of Psychological Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, South London and Maudsley Trust, London.



The demand for time-consuming psychotherapy of phobia/panic exceeds the supply of trained therapists. Delegating routine therapy aspects to a computer might ease this problem.


Ninety-three out-patients with phobia or panic disorder were randomized in a 2: 2 : 1 ratio to have self-exposure therapy guided either mainly by a stand-alone computer system (FearFighter) or entirely face-to-face by a clinician, or to have mainly computer-guided self-relaxation as a placebo. Both computer groups (FearFighter and relaxation) had brief back-up advice from a clinician. Primary outcome measures were self- and blind-assessor ratings of Main Problem and Goals, and Global Phobia.


Drop-outs occurred significantly more often in the two self-exposure groups (43% if mainly computer-guided, 24% if entirely clinician-guided) than with self-relaxation (6%); the difference between the two self-exposure groups was not significant. Even with all drop-outs included, the mainly computer-guided exposure group and the relaxation group had 73% less clinician time per patient than did the entirely clinician-guided exposure group. The two self-exposure groups had comparable improvement and satisfaction at post-treatment and at 1-month follow-up, while relaxation was ineffective. Mean improvement on the primary outcome measures (self- and assessor-rated) was 46% computer, 49% clinician, 9% relaxation at post-treatment (week 10) and 58% computer, 53% clinician and -4% relaxation at 1-month follow-up (week 14). Mean effect sizes on the primary outcome measures were 2.9 computer, 3.5 clinician and 0.5 relaxation at post-treatment; and 3.7 computer, 3.5 clinician and 0.5 relaxation at 1-month follow-up. The assessor did not rate patients at follow-up.


Despite its (non-significantly) higher dropout rate, self-exposure therapy for panic/ phobia cut clinician time per patient by 73% without losing efficacy when guided mainly by a computer rather than entirely by a clinician. The finding needs confirmation at a follow-up that is longer and includes a blind assessor. Self-relaxation had the highest rate of completers but was ineffective.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center