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Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Feb;28(2):248-53.

Added thermogenic and satiety effects of a mixed nutrient vs a sugar-only beverage.

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Obesity Research Center, St Luke's Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10025, USA.



To examine the effects of a sugar-only (SO) beverage vs one containing a mixed-nutrient (MN) composition on energy expenditure and feelings of hunger and satiety.


A beverage containing a mixed macronutrient composition will lead to greater thermic effect of food and feelings of fullness than an isocaloric beverage containing only sugar.


Adults were randomly assigned to receive a 2510 kJ (600 kcal) SO liquid formula followed by an isovolumic, isoenergetic, MN liquid formula with an energy distribution of 17% protein, 67% carbohydrates as sucrose and corn syrup solids, and 16% fat, or vice versa, in a crossover design. The carbohydrate source in the two beverages was identical: 1:1 ratio of sucrose and corn syrup solids (25 dextrose equivalents). The thermic response was calculated as the 7 h deviation from resting metabolic rate (RMR). Subjects provided hunger/satiety ratings and other related information by visual analog scales at regular intervals throughout the study period.


In all, 20 subjects completed the protocol; one was removed from the thermic effect analysis due to discrepant RMRs. Following beverage ingestion, SO and MN liquid meals produced 7 h thermic effects of (X+/-s.e.m.) 274.1+/-27.6 kJ (65.5+/-6.6 kcal) and 372.0+/-33.9 kJ (88.9+/-8.1 kcal), respectively, resulting in a significant (P<0.01) difference between meals (Delta=97.9+/-35.1 kJ [23.4+/-8.4 kcal]). Analysis of satiety ratings using area under the curve analysis showed greater feelings of satiety (P<0.05) with MN compared to SO consumption. Also, subjects felt that they could eat less (P<0.05) after consumption of the MN vs SO beverage.


In comparison to MN beverages, SO beverages are associated with a relatively high-energy retention without accompanying subjective hunger/fullness compensations, suggesting a basis for their role in long-term unintentional weight gain in healthy adults.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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