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J Prosthet Dent. 2004 Feb;91(2):136-43.

Glass/ceramic/refractory techniques, their development and introduction into dentistry: A historical literature review.

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School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.


This review considered the development of glass, ceramic, refractory materials, and techniques over a period of 25,000 years, from the time of stone-age man to their introduction into dentistry. Currently a wide variety of all-ceramic dental restorations are provided using alumina-reinforced, leucite-forming, and novel glass and ceramic materials along with a range of refractory materials and associated techniques. However, some of the problems of dimensional and thermal change experienced by early craftsmen still persist during current laboratory fabrication techniques. Early English archaeological and dental publications were obtained through the Archaeology Education Department of the British Museum in London and the Archives of the British Dental Association Library. More recent peer-reviewed articles published from 1966 to the present were obtained through MEDLINE.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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