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Ann Pharmacother. 2004 Mar;38(3):433-9. Epub 2004 Jan 23.

Single-dose azithromycin for respiratory tract infections.

Author information

1
Section of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Adult and Pediatric Medicine, and Clinical Pharmacology Research Center, Bassett Healthcare, Cooperstown, NY 13326, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To describe the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety data of the use of single-dose azithromycin for respiratory tract infections in children and adults.

DATA SOURCES:

A MEDLINE search (1990-September 2003) was performed to identify all pertinent studies and review articles. When appropriate information was not available in the literature, data were obtained from the product manufacturers or abstracts from international conferences.

STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION:

All available studies were reviewed to provide pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, efficacy, and safety data on use of single-dose azithromycin for respiratory tract infections.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

Several studies have demonstrated that shorter regimens of azithromycin (1500 mg over 3 day vs 5 day or single dose vs 3 day) provide higher serum exposures compared with the longer regimens. This makes it possible to give the same dose over a shorter period of time and achieve the same efficacy with the potential for enhanced adherence. Single-dose azithromycin 30 mg/kg was approved in 2003 for treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) in children. Studies have demonstrated that, when administering azithromycin as a single dose, its efficacy and safety are comparable to that of other standard regimens for AOM. Single-dose regimens for treatment of respiratory tract infections in adults have not been studied widely, with only 2 studies being conducted for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and one study for treatment of tonsillitis; all demonstrated at least equal efficacy with the single-dose regimen compared with comparators given for longer periods of time.

CONCLUSIONS:

Available data regarding single-dose azithromycin are promising. Although use of this regimen in children is warranted based on studies to date, additional large-scale trials are needed prior to mainstream use of the regimen in adults.

PMID:
14970367
DOI:
10.1345/aph.1D001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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