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Am J Dis Child. 1992 Jul;146(7):797-802.

Cefepime. Pharmacokinetics and clinical response in patients with cystic fibrosis.

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1
Pediatric Infectious Disease, Division, Memorial Miller Children's Hospital, Long Beach, Calif. 90801-1428.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To measure first-dose and steady-state plasma, urine, and sputum concentrations of cefepime and make preliminary assessments of the clinical efficacy of cefepime in patients with cystic fibrosis.

DESIGN:

Open noncomparative clinical trial.

SETTING:

Memorial Miller Children's Hospital of Long Beach, Calif.

PARTICIPANTS:

Twelve patients, aged 4 to 41 years, with a confirmed diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchopulmonary infections.

INTERVENTIONS:

Patients received cefepime at 50 mg/kg per dose (maximum dose, 2 g per dose) given intravenously every 8 hours. Clinical evaluations, pulmonary function tests, quantitative sputum cultures, and sensitivity testing were performed before, at the end of, and 2 weeks after therapy.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

Mean (+/- SD) peak plasma concentrations after the first dose were 148.2 (36.6) mg/L; the following other values were included: half-life, 1.59 (0.46) hours; area under the curve, 292 (94) microgram/h per milliliter; total-body clearance, 3.01 (1.46) mL/min per kilogram; volume of distribution at steady state, 0.32 (0.10) L/kg; and percent of dose recovered in urine, 52% (27%). Steady-state and first-dose values were similar. Trough levels varied from 6.4 to 7.2 mg/L. Mean (+/- SD) sputum concentrations at steady state varied from 6.3 (5.4) to 4.8 (2.3) mg/L. At completion of therapy, nine of 10 patients' conditions were improved as indicated by clinical scores (greater than 10 points), forced vital capacity (greater than 10%), and a greater than or equal to 1 log decrease in sputum bacterial concentration. Cefepime was well tolerated in 10 patients, but rash and light-headedness developed in two patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa minimum inhibitory concentration90 increased from the start (64 mg/L) to the end of therapy (256 mg/L) and was unchanged 2 weeks later.

CONCLUSION:

Based on these data and the potential advantage of a single agent for the treatment of mixed infections (Staphylococcus aureus and P aeruginosa), comparative clinical trials of cefepime and standard therapy for bronchopulmonary exacerbations in patients with cystic fibrosis appear to be warranted.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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