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Int J Food Microbiol. 2004 Feb 15;91(1):51-62.

Genetic diversity and virulence gene determinants of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella isolated from preharvest turkey production sources.

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Division of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA.


This study evaluated the molecular diversity of 29 Salmonella serotypes isolated from turkey ceca and the production environment. Isolates were resistant to bacitracin (100%), erythromycin (100%), novobiocin (100%), rifampin (100%), streptomycin (62%), gentamicin (52%), spectinomycin (48%), tetracycline (31%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT) (3%) and tobramycin (3%). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 32 to >/=1024 microg/ml. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ribotyping patterns were identical within each of the serotypes Heidelberg, Worthington and Muenster. The plasmid profiles were identical within each of the Salmonella serotypes. Two different clones of Salmonella anatum were differentiated by PFGE typing but not by ribotyping. Heidelberg isolates from nine turkey ceca and three drinker samples had identical antibiotic resistance, PFGE, ribotype and plasmid patterns, suggesting that transmission of this particular clone may have occurred between the birds and the drinkers. Identical PFGE, ribotype and plasmid patterns were observed in one Salmonella worthington isolate from turkey ceca in one flock and two S. worthington isolates from feeder contents and drinkers from a subsequent flock, suggesting transmission of this pathogen between flocks. Individual and multiple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses revealed the presence of the virulence genes invA, aceK and sopB and the absence of the h-1i gene in all isolates. A combination of genotypic and phenotypic markers can be useful in studying genetic variation among natural salmonellae populations in turkey production and delineating possible transmission pathways.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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