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J Leukoc Biol. 2004 May;75(5):764-71. Epub 2004 Feb 13.

Streptococcus pyogenes and Lactobacillus rhamnosus differentially induce maturation and production of Th1-type cytokines and chemokines in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

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Department of Microbiology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.


Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most efficient antigen-presenting cells and thus, have a major role in regulating host immune responses. In the present study, we have analyzed the ability of Gram-positive, pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes and nonpathogenic Lactobacillus rhamnosus to induce the maturation of human monocyte-derived DCs. Stimulation of DCs with S. pyogenes resulted in strong expression of DC costimulatory molecules CD80, CD83, and CD86 accompanied with a T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine and chemokine response. S. pyogenes also induced interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12 production at mRNA and protein levels. In addition, IL-23 and IL-27 subunits p40, p19, p28, and EBI3 were induced at mRNA level. In contrast, L. rhamnosus-stimulated DCs showed only moderate expression of costimulatory molecules and produced low levels of cytokines and chemokines. Furthermore, no production of IL-2 or IL-12 family cytokines was detected. Bacteria-induced DC maturation and especially cytokine and chemokine production were reduced when bacteria were heat-inactivated. Our results show that human monocyte-derived DCs respond differently to different Gram-positive bacteria. Although pathogenic S. pyogenes induced a strong Th1-type response, stimulation with nonpathogenic L. rhamnosus resulted in development of semi-mature DCs characterized by moderate expression of costimulatory molecules and low cytokine production.

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