Send to

Choose Destination
Ann Biomed Eng. 2004 Jan;32(1):35-49.

A paradigm for functional tissue engineering of articular cartilage via applied physiologic deformational loading.

Author information

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.

Erratum in

  • Ann Biomed Eng. 2004 Mar;32(3):510.


Deformational loading represents a primary component of the chondrocyte physical environment in vivo. This review summarizes our experience with physiologic deformational loading of chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogels to promote development of cartilage constructs having mechanical properties matching that of the parent calf tissue, which has a Young's modulus E(Y) = 277 kPa and unconfined dynamic modulus at 1 Hz G* = 7 MPa. Over an 8-week culture period, cartilage-like properties have been achieved for 60 x 10(6) cells/ml seeding density agarose constructs, with E(Y) = 186 kPa, G* = 1.64 MPa. For these constructs, the GAG content reached 1.74% ww and collagen content 2.64% ww compared to 2.4% ww and 21.5% ww for the parent tissue, respectively. Issues regarding the deformational loading protocol, cell-seeding density, nutrient supply, growth factor addition, and construct mechanical characterization are discussed. In anticipation of cartilage repair studies, we also describe early efforts to engineer cylindrical and anatomically shaped bilayered constructs of agarose hydrogel and bone (i.e., osteochondral constructs). The presence of a bony substrate may facilitate integration upon implantation. These efforts will provide an underlying framework from which a functional tissue-engineering approach, as described by Butler and coworkers (2000), may be applied to general cell-scaffold systems adopted for cartilage tissue engineering.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center