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Clin Nephrol. 2004 Jan;61(1):1-6.

Prevalence of proteinuria and the development of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients.

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Division of Infectious Diseases, Indiana University School of Medicine, Wishard Hospital, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.



HIV-related renal diseases are increasingly prevalent and are associated with proteinuria and rapid progression to end-stage renal failure. Early treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and ACE inhibition may prevent the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but studies evaluating the epidemiology of proteinuria and early CKD in HIV-infected patients are lacking.


All consecutive patients at Wishard Memorial Hospital (Indiana University) whose initial HIV documentation occurred from 1990 to 1998, were retrospectively studied using a computerized medical record system. Clinical data were abstracted from time of first HIV documentation through 12/31/2000. The proportions of patients who developed CKD (doubling of serum creatinine from an initial level < or = 1.5 mg/dl) and who had proteinuria (> or = 1+ protein on the first urine dipstick after HIV documentation) were calculated. Case mix and laboratory variables at the time of HIV documentation were compared between those who did and did not develop CKD and between those who had and did not have initial proteinuria.


Of 487 subjects with initially normal renal function, 10 (2% (95% CI, 1-4%)) developed CKD. In univariable analysis, black race, a diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension and proteinuria were all significantly associated with the development of CKD; 89 (29% (95% CI, 24-35%)) of 289 evaluable subjects had > or = 1+ proteinuria on urine analysis. Multivariable regression revealed only older age (OR 1.08 per year increase; 95% CI, 1.03-1.14) to be associated with proteinuria.


A small, but potentially clinically meaningful proportion of HIV-infected patients develop CKD, and there appears to be a high prevalence of proteinuria on the first urine analysis obtained after HIV documentation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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