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Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2004 Feb 23;56(3):275-300.

High-throughput crystallization: polymorphs, salts, co-crystals and solvates of pharmaceutical solids.

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  • 1TransForm Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 29 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421, USA.


The concepts of high-throughput (HT) screening and combinatorial synthesis have been integrated into the pharmaceutical discovery process, but are not yet commonplace in the pharmaceutical development arena. Emerging strategies to speed pharmaceutical development and capture solid form diversity of pharmaceutical substances have resulted in the emergence of HT crystallization technologies. The primary type of diversity often refers to polymorphs, which are different crystal forms of the same chemical composition. However, diverse salt forms, co-crystals, hydrates and solvates are also amenable to study in HT crystallization systems. The impact of form diversity encompasses issues of stability and bioavailability, as well as development considerations such as process definition, formulation design, patent protection and regulatory control. This review highlights the opportunities and challenges of HT crystallization technologies as they apply to pharmaceutical research and development.

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