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J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 23;279(17):16954-62. Epub 2004 Feb 10.

A Kruppel-like factor KLF15 contributes fasting-induced transcriptional activation of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA synthetase gene AceCS2.

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Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology, and Vascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, the Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8574, Japan.


Acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (AceCS2) produces acetyl-CoA for oxidation through the citric acid cycle in the mitochondrial matrix. AceCS2 is highly expressed in the skeletal muscle and is robustly induced by fasting. Quantification of AceCS2 transcripts both in C2C12 and human myotubes indicated that fasting-induced AceCS2 gene expression appears to be independent on insulin action. Characterization of 5'-flanking region of the mouse AceCS2 gene demonstrates that Kr├╝ppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) plays a key role in the trans-activation of the AceCS2 gene. Deletion and mutation analyses of AceCS2 promoter region revealed that the most proximal KLF site is a curtail site for the trans-activation of the AceCS2 gene by KLF15. Using Sp-null Drosophila SL2 cells, we showed that the combination of KLF15 and Sp1 resulted in a synergistic activation of the AceCS2 promoter. Mutation analyses of three GC-boxes in the AceCS2 promoter indicated that the GC-box, located 8 bases downstream of the most proximal KLF15 site, is the most important GC-box in the synergistic trans-activation of the AceCS2 gene by KLF15 and Sp1. GST pull-down assays showed that KLF15 interacts with Sp1 in vitro. Quantification of various KLF transcripts revealed that 48 h fasting robustly induced the KLF15 transcripts in the skeletal muscle. Together with the trans-activation of the AceCS2 promoter, it is suggested that fasting-induced AceCS2 expression is largely contributed by KLF15. Furthermore, KLF15 overexpression induced the levels of AceCS2 transcripts both in myoblasts and in myotubes, indicating that AceCS2 gene expression in vivo is indeed induced by KLF15.

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