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Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1992 Oct;70(10):1348-52.

Role of environmental temperature and photoperiod in regulation of seasonal testicular activity in the frog, Rana perezi.

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Departamento de Biología Animal II (Fisiología Animal), Facultad de Biología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.


To analyze the role of environmental temperature and photoperiod in the regulation of the annual testicular cycle in Rana perezi, we performed experiments combining high (25 +/- 1 degrees C) or low (6 +/- 1 degrees C) temperature and different photoperiod regimens (18L:6D, 12L:12D, and 6L:18D (hours light:hours dark)) during three phases of the reproductive cycle: winter stage (December) and prebreeding (February) and postbreeding (May, June) periods. Low temperature and short photoperiod in winter induced the arrest of the maturation phase of spermatogenesis and the activation of primary spermatogonia proliferation and spermiohistogenesis. Rana perezi testis responded to long days stimulus in winter, even at low temperature, with induction of the maturation phase of the cycle. Exposure of male frogs to either high temperature or long photoperiod induced a decrease in testosterone levels in winter. During the prebreeding period, an increase in environmental temperature caused a reduction in testosterone, and a lengthening in photoperiod produced the opposite effect. Photoperiod had no effect on testosterone levels during the postbreeding period, but low temperature increased testosterone plasma levels. These results suggest that both temperature and photoperiod effects can vary seasonally, depending on the phase of the annual reproductive cycle in R. perezi.

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