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Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Feb 1;10(3):1032-40.

Expression of androgen receptor coregulators in prostate cancer.

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  • 1Laboratory of Cancer Genetics, Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, FIN-33014 Tampere, Finland.



The androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signaling pathway seems to be essentially involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer. In vitro studies have shown that altered expression of AR coregulators may significantly modify transcriptional activity of AR, suggesting that these coregulators could also contribute to the progression of prostate cancer. Here, our goal was to assess alterations in the expression of the AR coregulators in prostate cancer in vivo.


The expression of 16 AR coactivators and corepressors (SRC1, beta-catenin, TIF2, PIAS1, PIASx, ARIP4, BRCA1, AIB1, AIB3, CBP, STAT1, NCoR1, AES, cyclin D1, p300, and ARA24) was measured in prostate cancer cell lines, xenografts, and clinical prostate tumor specimens by using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. In addition, gene copy number of SRC1 was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization.


Both AR-positive and AR-negative cell lines and xenografts expressed the coregulators. Most of the coregulators studied were expressed at equal levels in benign prostatic hyperplasia and untreated and hormone-refractory carcinomas. However, the expression of PIAS1 and SRC1 was significantly (P = 0.048 and 0.017, respectively) lower in hormone-refractory prostate tumors than in untreated prostate tumors. No overexpression of the coregulators was found in the clinical material. Paradoxically, the SRC1 gene was found to be amplified and highly expressed in a LuCaP 70 prostate cancer xenograft.


These findings suggest that the decreased expression of PIAS1 and SRC1 could be involved in the progression of prostate cancer. In addition, gene amplification of SRC1 in one of the xenografts implies that, in some tumors, genetic alteration of SRC1 may provide a growth advantage.

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