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Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004 Feb 12;1696(2):181-90.

Porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibition by the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) inhibitor (alpha-AI1) and structural changes in the alpha-amylase inhibitor complex.

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Institut Méditerranéen de Recherche en Nutrition (IMRN case 342), UMR INRA 1111, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de St Jérôme, Université d'Aix-Marseille, Av Esc Normandie-Niemen, 13397 Marseilles cedex 20, France.


Porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) is inhibited by the red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) inhibitor alpha-AI1 [Eur. J. Biochem. 265 (1999) 20]. Inhibition kinetics were carried out using DP 4900-amylose and maltopentaose as substrate. As shown by graphical and statistical analysis of the kinetic data, the inhibitory mode is of the mixed noncompetitive type whatever the substrate thus involving the EI, EI2, ESI and ESI2 complexes. This contrast with the E2I complex obtained in the crystal and with biophysical studies. Such difference very likely depends on the [I]/[E] ratio. At low ratio, the E2I complex is favoured; at high ratio the EI, ESI and EI2 complexes are formed. The inhibition model also differs from those previously proposed for acarbose [Eur. J. Biochem. 241 (1996) 787 and Eur. J. Biochem. 252 (1998) 100]. In particular, with alpha-AI1, the inhibition takes place only when PPA and alpha-AI are preincubated together before adding the substrate. This indicates that the abortive PPA-alphaAI1 complex is formed during the preincubation period. One additional carbohydrate binding site is also demonstrated yielding the ESI complex. Also, a second protein binding site is found in EI2 and ESI2 abortive complexes. Conformational changes undergone by PPA upon alpha-AI1 binding are shown by higher sensitivity to subtilisin attack. From X-ray analysis of the alpha-AI1-PPA complex (E2I), the major interaction occurs with two hairpin loops L1 (residues 29-46) and L2 (residues 171-189) of alpha-AI1 protruding into the V-shaped active site of PPA. The hydrolysis of alpha-AI1 that accounts for the inhibitory activity is reported.

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