Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2004 Feb;84(2):101-8.

Screening for cervical cancer in developing countries.

Author information

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.


Cervical cancer is the most common malignancy amongst females in developing countries, mainly due to a lack of precursor screening. This absence of screening is the result of inherent disadvantages of the Pap smear: high cost, low sensitivity, the need for a laboratory with high human expertise and a complex screening program logistic system. The prerequisites for screening in a developing country include a screening method that is affordable, which can be effectively applied once in a lifetime at the age of 30-35 years, provide an immediate result and thereby allowing for on-site treatment of positive cases. None of the current screening methods comply with these prerequisites. More research is necessary into different combinations of tests, which improve sensitivity. On-site human papillomavirus (HPV) identification, alone or in combination with other tests, is promising. Another promising development is immunization against HPV infection, either as a preventative measure or for stimulating immunity in infected women.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center