Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Clin Nurs Res. 1992 Nov;1(4):336-46.

The parent expectations survey: a measure of perceived self-efficacy.


Self-efficacy in early parenting is the confidence that a mother has in her ability to meet the demands of the role of new parent. The Parent Expectations Survey (PES) was developed to measure perceptions of self-efficacy in early parenting. This article traces the development and psychometric testing of the PES. The PES was tested on 82 primiparas at 1 and 3 months postpartum. It demonstrated internal consistency reliability and concurrent validity. Those mothers who had higher self-efficacy early in the transition to parenthood had greater confidence in parenting and less stress 1 year after delivery, thus establishing the predictive validity of the instrument. The PES, both easy to use and to score, may be used by clinicians during the perinatal period to ascertain a mother's early perceptions of self-efficacy in parenting. For those mothers with low self-efficacy, interventions to empower them in that new role may then follow.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon
    Loading ...
    Support Center