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J Infect Dis. 2004 Feb 15;189(4):624-33. Epub 2004 Feb 4.

Inhibition of HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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Translational Research Unit, Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute of Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, Via Portuense 292, 00149 Rome, Italy.


Controversial results have been obtained in studies of the effect of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in cells of the macrophage lineage. In the present study, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), previously incubated for 2 days with heat-inactivated M. tuberculosis, were infected with HIV-1. M. tuberculosis consistently inhibited viral replication, and a similar result also was observed in the presence of supernatants from M. tuberculosis-stimulated MDMs, which indicates that this effect was mediated by soluble factors. Although CCR5-binding chemokines were induced by M. tuberculosis stimulation, the results of neutralization experiments indicated that it is unlikely that they were responsible for viral suppression. Inhibition occurred mainly after viral entry (demonstrated by use of a vesicular stomatitis virus G-pseudotyped HIV-1 and by analysis of HIV-1 early and late reverse-transcription products). Therefore, M. tuberculosis-induced factors may inhibit in vitro HIV-1 replication in macrophages by affecting an early postentry step in the HIV-1 cycle.

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