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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Feb;89(2):971-8.

Insulin promoter factor-1 mutations and diabetes in Trinidad: identification of a novel diabetes-associated mutation (E224K) in an Indo-Trinidadian family.

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Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.


This study investigated the prevalence of insulin promoter factor-1(IPF-1) mutations in familial early-onset diabetes mellitus in Trinidad. We screened 264 unrelated subjects with type 2 diabetes diagnosed before 40 yr of age and a family history of diabetes for mutations in the minimal promoter and coding region of the IPF-1 gene (IPF1). This study population included 169 patients of East Indian descent (Indo-Trinidadians), 66 of African descent (Afro-Trinidadians), and 29 of mixed ancestry. We identified five IPF1 variants, including one new missense mutation E224K, the previously described diabetes-associated duplication P242 P243dupP, two silent mutations in the codons for Leu54 (c.162G>A) and Ala256 (c.768C>A), and a substitution in the 5'-untranslated region (c.-18C>T). The E224K mutation was found in two unrelated diabetic Indo-Trinidadians and 0 of 60 controls. It was present on the same haplotype in both patients suggesting a founder effect. The E224K mutation cosegregated with early-onset diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance in a large family, suggestive of the type 4 form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young rather than type 2 diabetes. Functional studies of E224K showed reduced transactivation activity. IPF1 mutations leading to synthesis of a mutant protein may contribute to the development of familial early-onset diabetes/maturity-onset diabetes of the young in Indo-Trinidadians.

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