Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Toxicol In Vitro. 2004 Apr;18(2):153-63.

Toxicology investigations with cell culture systems: 20 years after.

Author information

Istituto di Neurobiologia e Medicina Molecolare, C.N.R., Viale Marx 15, 00137, Rome, Italy.


From almost 20 years the "in vitro" model has gained a wide ground in toxicological investigation, providing advanced tools, reliable protocols, mechanistic information. These advancements have been done thanks to different approaches, addressed at improving chemical testing and validating procedures, at exploring the cellular and molecular basis of toxicity, at studying the modifications that xenobiotics undergo in the cellular environment. In this review the most advanced cellular models, the mechanisms of cell death, the techniques to monitor gene activation, following chemical exposure, is highlighted. Moreover the more recent in vitro models to approach the biotransformation issue will be presented.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center