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J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004 Feb;72(1):3-18.

Cognitive trauma therapy for battered women with PTSD (CTT-BW).

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  • 1Department of Veterans Affairs, National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Honolulu, HI, USA.


This article describes a second treatment-outcome study of cognitive trauma therapy for battered women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; CTT-BW). CTT-BW includes trauma history exploration: PTSD education; stress management; exposure to abuse and abuser reminders; self-monitoring of negative self-talk; cognitive therapy for guilt; and modules on self-advocacy, assertiveness, and how to identify perpetrators. One hundred twenty-five ethnically diverse women were randomly assigned to immediate or delayed CTT-BW. PTSD remitted in 87% of women who completed CTT-BW, with large reductions in depression and guilt and substantial increases in self-esteem. White and ethnic minority women benefited equally from CTT-BW. Similar treatment outcomes were obtained by male and female therapists and by therapists with different levels of education and training. Gains were maintained at 3- and 6-month follow-ups.

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