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J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 9;279(15):14991-8. Epub 2004 Jan 30.

Distinct natures of beryllium fluoride-bound, aluminum fluoride-bound, and magnesium fluoride-bound stable analogues of an ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme intermediate of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase: changes in catalytic and transport sites during phosphoenzyme hydrolysis.

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Department of Biochemistry, Asahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa 078-8510, Japan.


The structural natures of stable analogues for the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme (E2P) of Ca(2+)-ATPase formed in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, i.e. the enzymes with bound beryllium fluoride (BeF.E2), bound aluminum fluoride (AlF.E2), and bound magnesium fluoride (MgF.E2), were explored and compared with those of actual E2P formed from P(i) without Ca(2+). Changes in trinitrophenyl-AMP fluorescence revealed that the catalytic site is strongly hydrophobic in BeF.E2 as in E2P but hydrophilic in MgF.E2 and AlF.E2; yet, the three cytoplasmic domains are compactly organized in these states. Thapsigargin, which was shown in the crystal structure to fix the transmembrane helices and, thus, the postulated Ca(2+) release pathway to lumen in a closed state, largely reduced the tryptophan fluorescence in BeF.E2 as in E2P, but only very slightly (hence, the release pathway is likely closed without thapsigargin) in MgF.E2 and AlF.E2 as in dephosphorylated enzyme. Consistently, the completely suppressed Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in BeF-treated vesicles was rapidly restored in the presence of ionophore A23187 but not in its absence by incubation with Ca(2+) (over several millimolar concentrations) at pH 6, and, therefore, lumenal Ca(2+) is accessible to reactivate the enzyme. In contrast, no or only very slow restoration was observed with vesicles treated with MgF and AlF even with A23187. BeF.E2 thus has the features very similar to those characteristic of the E2P ground state, although AlF.E2 and MgF.E2 most likely mimic the transition or product state for the E2P hydrolysis, during which the hydrophobic nature around the phosphorylation site is lost and the Ca(2+) release pathway is closed. The change in hydrophobic nature is probably associated with the change in phosphate geometry from the covalently bound tetrahedral ground state (BeF(3)(-)) to trigonal bipyramidal transition state (AlF(3) or AlF(4)(-)) and further to tetrahedral product state (MgF(4)(2-)), and such change likely rearranges transmembrane helices to prevent access and leakage of lumenal Ca(2+).

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