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Mol Genet Genomics. 2004 Mar;271(2):228-36. Epub 2004 Jan 30.

Cloning and characterization of the histidine kinase gene Dic1 from Cochliobolus heterostrophus that confers dicarboximide resistance and osmotic adaptation.

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Laboratory of Environmental Mycoscience, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, 606-8502 Kyoto, Japan.


A gene for a putative two-component histidine kinase, which is homologous to os-1 from Neurospora crassa, was cloned and sequenced from the plant-pathogenic fungus Cochliobolus heterostrophus. The predicted protein possessed the conserved histidine kinase domain, the response regulator domain, and six tandem repeats of 92-amino-acids at the N-terminal end that are found in histidine kinases from other filamentous fungi. Introduction of the histidine kinase gene complemented the deficiency of the C. heterostrophus dic1 mutant, suggesting that the Dic1 gene product is a histidine kinase. Dic1 mutants are resistant to dicarboximide and phenylpyrrole fungicides, and they are sensitive to osmotic stress. We previously classified dic1 alleles into three types, based on their phenotypes. To explain the phenotypic differences among the dic1 mutant alleles, we cloned and sequenced the mutant dic1 genes and compared their sequences with that of the wild-type strain. Null mutants for Dic1, and mutants with a deletion or point mutation in the N-terminal repeat region, were highly sensitive to osmotic stress and highly resistant to both fungicides. A single amino acid change within the kinase domain or the regulator domain altered the sensitivity to osmotic stress and conferred moderate resistance to the fungicides. These results suggest that this predicted protein, especially its repeat region, has an important function in osmotic adaptation and fungicide resistance.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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