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J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2004 Feb;17(2):132-8.

Noninvasive quantification of regional myocardial function using Doppler-derived velocity, displacement, strain rate, and strain in healthy volunteers: effects of aging.

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Department of Cardiovascular Imaging, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44196, USA.


Quantification of regional function can be performed using Doppler tissue echocardiography to evaluate myocardial velocity, tissue displacement, strain, and strain rate. Although these techniques have been validated in animal experiments and early clinical trials, there are only limited measurements in healthy populations to use as reference data. In 100 healthy volunteers, left ventricular myocardial velocity, displacement, strain, and strain rate were measured using Doppler tissue echocardiography. Measurements were obtained from basal, mid, and apical segments of walls visualized from left ventricular apical 4- and 2-chamber views. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the effects of age and wall segment position. All parameters showed a strong dependence on wall segment position. Although myocardial velocities and strain rate showed significant dependence on age, displacement and peak systolic strain measures were less affected. Like pulsed Doppler mitral inflow velocity, tissue velocity and strain rate show age-related changes.

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